What is it?
Also called diabetes fatty or mature, non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic excess of sugar in the blood (hyperglycemia).
The regulation of sugar (glucose) in the body involves:
Intakes of sugar (essentially a food);
The manufacture ‘internal’ sugar (mainly by the liver);
The peripheral use of sugar at the level of cells: insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, then allows the cells to capture and use glucose.
There are a misregulation of this system, with most often a State of insulin resistance in T2DM,: to maintain a constant sugar level, the body needs more insulin, because it becomes less effective. Eventually, even large amounts of insulin are no longer sufficient to use the circulating glucose accumulates in the blood: this is hyperglycemia. Finally, the pancreas gets tired of this permanent stimulation and can no longer produce enough insulin: it is the insulin-necessitance. These mechanisms of insulin resistance and necessitance are particularly those overweight.
Causes and risk factors
T2DM is a very common disease that affects more than a million and a half people in France, and continues to grow. It represents approximately 85% of all diabetes, and concerns both men and women.
The diagnosis of NIDDM is usually around 40-50 years, but the age of onset is earlier.
There is not a single causal factor of the disease but several risk factors:
Genetics and heredity: hereditary factor is very often found (“several members of the family have diabetes”). In addition, certain populations are particularly affected by T2DM confirming its genetic origin;
Overweight and obesity: between 60 and 90% of patients with a NIDDM have important overweight;
It is worth noting that specific causes of diabetes can sometimes be found: living with inflammatory pancreatic (alcohol, overload or malnutrition… diseases), pancreatic, liver disease, endocrine… In these cases, one speaks of secondary diabetes, and not of NIDDM.
All these risk factors must motivate a regular enhanced surveillance: diabetes in the family history, obesity, diabetes in pregnancy, birth of babies being more than 4 kilos, taken certain medications…