Discovered in 1817 by a British physician who gave him his name, Parkinson’s disease affects 4 million people in the world. Of the 100 000 a 150 000 probable PD, only 80,000 are known and followed. Too often slow and earthquakes are attributed to the simple fact of aging.
Each year, 8,000 new cases. Although the disease usually starts between 55 and 65 years, 5 to 10% of patients have at much younger ages (between 30 and 55 years).
What is Parkinson’s disease?
Discovered in 1817, Parkinson’s disease is still far from having revealed all its secrets. Nervous system, its cause is still unknown. The disease is characterized by the disappearance of a small number of nerve cells (neurons) that secrete a neurotransmitter called dopamine involved in the proper functioning of many parts of the brain and essential for cell survival.Connection between two neurons.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter (a chemical released by neurons that can transmit impulses) at the junctions between nerve cells (synapses).
Synapses are the areas of information exchange between neurons. At this level, information is exchanged in the form of chemical messages. Chemicals called neurotransmitters are secreted and bind to specific receptors.
In normal synapse
1 : Nerve impulse 2 : neurotransmitter (dopamine) 3 : specific dopamine receptor 4 : System dopamine reuptake
What are the symptoms?
The onset of symptoms is gradual. After a period of intense fatigue, Parkinson’s disease is characterized by tremor, while the body is at rest, rigidity and difficulty initiating and performing movements.
These disturbances in motor control are often associated with specific psychological aspects because of the lack of dopamine.
What are the risk factors?
To date, no risk factor was demonstrated.
However, several avenues were explored 1 :
Exposure to certain pesticides;
Exposure to metals (lead, mercury and manganese, iron, copper, cobalt, etc.).
Exposure to non-metal toxins (industrial toxins, carbon monoxide, cyanide, exhaust fumes, glue, paint, varnish, etc.).
The occurrence of head injuries;
A diet low in antioxidants;
Some infections (chickenpox, measles, mumps, rubella, etc..).