Only the study of cervical tissue sample of the uterus or endometrial allows a definitive diagnosis.
1.The diagnosis of endometrial cancer
2.The diagnosis of cancers of the cervix
3.Learn more about uterine cancer
The diagnosis of endometrial cancer
When symptoms suggest a suspected cancer of the endometrial, the doctor requested tests for confirmation. The diagnosis requires a taking a piece of the uterine wall. It may be a simple biopsy of the endometrial, biopsy or curettage with or without hysteroscopy. Hysteroscopy is an examination of exploring the inner wall of the body and cervix using a tiny camera (endoscope). It can be done without anesthesia general. When curettage is required, the examination is usually performed in a hospital under anesthesia.
The uterus is dilated with a gas to allow the insertion of a small sampling instrument. Curettage only takes a few minutes. The recovery takes about a day. However, pain and light bleeding may continue for one week. The tissues are then observed under a microscope. This analysis determines whether the tissue is cancerous or not. Examinations of imaging (CT and MRI) can also be practiced in order to seek a possible spread of the disease to other organs.
The diagnosis of cancers of the cervix
The most common early symptoms of cancer of the cervix is bleeding occurring outside the menstrual period, either spontaneously or after sex . An abnormal increase of vaginal discharge can also be seen as a symptom, although in the vast majority of cases it is caused by other diseases or infections. These warning signs do not necessarily mean it is cancer, but they require the advice of a doctor, a clinical examination and possible further investigations. If the clinical examination of the cervix of the uterus leads the physician to find abnormal areas, it may take a small tissue sample to be tested under a microscope. If clinical examination reveals nothing abnormal, but the outcome of a smear indicates the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells, the doctor then applies reagents which “reveal” the lesions. These areas can then lead to a biopsy because a Pap alone does not confirm the diagnosis of cancer. To facilitate the biopsy of the cervix, the doctor may use a colposcope.
This is an instrument that magnifies the image of the vaginal mucosa and uterine. It allows a very accurate observation of suspicious areas before biopsy. The exam is called colposcopy. The tissues are sent to a pathologist, a specialist from the observation of cells under a microscope. It can recognize and interpret the cellular changes caused by the disease. It examines the samples and determine whether their appearance reveals dysphasia (which is not cancer, but a lesion that can become cancerous), carcinoma in situ, or cervical cancer. Carcinoma in situ is a precancerous lesion, located at a very shallow area of the cervix. If the analysis indicates the presence of a cervical cancer, it is possible to estimate the degree of extension by clinical examination and practicing some imaging studies (CT and MRI).