Diabetes by the numbers

Of type 1 or II, diabetes translated abnormal rise in the rate of glucose in the blood. This anomaly is due to a failure or a bad use of insulin. Diabetes is a serious disease which, without proper treatment, can be the cause of heart disease, blindness, of impotence and even amputations.

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In normal humans, blood glucose oscillates permanently between 0.50 and 1.50 g per litre of blood. What value can we talk about diabetes? Hypoglycemia?

Diabetes by the numbers

Blood glucose
Glucose provides energy to the various tissues of the body. If the rate of glucose in the blood remained stable even after a meal or after a physical effort, it is that there is a regulatory system complex in which insulin plays a key role.
Glucose is the rate of sugar in the blood.

Average value: 1 gram per litre (5.5 mmol/l).
It varies between 1 and 1.4 g/l two hours after a meal.
It varies between 0.8 and 1.26 g/l fasted in the morning.
According to who (World Health Organization) criteria, there is diabetes when the blood glucose fasting is greater than or equal to at least twice to 7 mmol/l or 1.26 g/l.

Hypoglycemia is a blood sugar lower than 0.45 g/l.
Hemoglobin AIC or A1C, is an indicator of the balance of the diabetes. It is measured every three to four months. It allows to estimate average blood sugar for 2 previous months and indicates the risk of long-term complications.
Capillary blood glucose is part of self-monitoring techniques. It is measured by a bite at the end of the finger. The drop of blood obtained is filed on a strip which is immediately readable by the patient’s Pocket reader.
Glycosuria is the rate of sugar in the urine. When blood sugar reaches 1.60 g/l, the sugar passes in the urine.

Diabetes in the world
In 1998, there were 143 million diabetics. The forecast for 2025 are 300 million, of which 2.4 million for the France.

In the world There are more than 100 million diabetics.
About 2.8% of the adult population is reached.
Between 6 and 10% of the American population is reached. Black, Indian and Hispanic minorities are most affected. (Insulin-dependent diabetes) is not distributed evenly around the world. The France is among the countries where the rate is quite low. The Finland is a 3 times higher than the France, China and the Japan have lower rates.

There are two times less NIDDM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes) in the active rural population in urban populations sedentary.

Estimated at 300 the number of transplants of pancreatic islets and to 7,000 the number of pancreas transplants performed so far and who succeeded to a certain extent.
All forms combined, the frequency of diabetes in the population increased rapidly from 45 years to culminate between 55 and 75 years. The ageing of the population to predict a significant increase in the number of elderly diabetic patients.

A forward-looking announce to the year 2025 a figure of 300 million diabetics, or 5.4% of the world population.