Parkinson’s disease in question

Discovered in 1817 by a British physician who gave him his name, Parkinson’s disease affects 4 million people in the world. Of the 100 000 a 150 000 probable PD, only 80,000 are known and followed. Too often slow and earthquakes are attributed to the simple fact of aging.

Each year, 8,000 new cases. Although the disease usually starts between 55 and 65 years, 5 to 10% of patients have at much younger ages (between 30 and 55 years).


What is Parkinson’s disease?
Discovered in 1817, Parkinson’s disease is still far from having revealed all its secrets. Nervous system, its cause is still unknown. The disease is characterized by the disappearance of a small number of nerve cells (neurons) that secrete a neurotransmitter called dopamine involved in the proper functioning of many parts of the brain and essential for cell survival.Connection between two neurons. Continue reading “Parkinson’s disease in question”

Parkinson: towards expanded indications of neurostimulation

Now reserved for advanced Parkinson’s disease forms, neurostimulation demonstrates real benefits at earlier stages of the disease. These results argue in favor of a wider use of this technique. Medical evidence but an economic and organizational puzzle …

Progressive, degenerative neurological disease, Parkinson’s disease is characterized by symptoms such as motor slowness, difficulty in movement, tremors, an uncertain balance and rigidity. It results from the degeneration of nerve cells that produces dopamine, an essential for the control of movements and body coordination neurotransmitter. In France, 150,000 people are affected by the disease, and there are 6 000 to 9 000 new cases per year. The incidence increases with age.


The standard treatment based on medicines antiparkinsonian taken orally (levodopa, dopamine agonists …) that will increase the amount of dopamine in the brain and stimulate the brain regions in which dopamine has an effect. To-onset of the disease, patients see their symptoms disappear, the term ” honeymoon . ” But this period did not last after 4-6 years, an interim period is characterized by the resurgence of the motor and / or dyskinesia (abnormal movements) that reflects a fluctuation of the beneficial effect of treatment conditions. It was during this period that other treatments can be considered as deep brain stimulation . It is estimated that 400 to 500 patients a year benefit. Continue reading “Parkinson: towards expanded indications of neurostimulation”


Who has never heard of Parkinson’s disease? Many famous and patients participated in the mediation of this disease. Rightly, we believe it is limited to tremors. Similarly, treatments and therapeutic strategies often remain unknown. Doctissimo reviews the medications used to treat this disease …

Of unknown cause, Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a weakening of the amounts of dopamine in the brain. This neurotransmitter is essential for communication between nerve cells it. This lack leads to a lack of coordination between different brain areas involved in the control of skeletal muscles, that is to say the so-called voluntary muscles (muscles that are controlled). No treatment to cure the disease exists to this day but it is nevertheless possible to delay its development.

medi-cal definition

Pharmacological point of view, it is possible to increase the amount of dopamine in the brain or to fight against the consequences of its failure on the balance of great pharmacological systems of our body. The drugs used are antiparkinsonian . There are also surgical treatment gives good results in some cases. Continue reading “Antiparkinsonian”

Special pain

Pain is a universal feeling. But in the case of diseases such as AIDS and cancer, it can be particularly challenging. Many campaigns against pain have enabled patients to break the taboo of suffering. But despite improved absorptions, too many patients continue to suffer in silence.

While the treatment and management of pain are constantly being improved, many patients hesitate to share his sufferings to the medical team. In the case of AIDS and cancer pain sometimes appears, wrongly, as a fatality. Focus on these cases with Doctissimo.


Pain and AIDS
More than a third of AIDS patients in pain. The causes of these sufferings are numerous. Thus, HIV infection itself can lead to pain, as well as drug and secondary opportunistic infections treatment that patients can develop AIDS .
Abdominal pain, oropharyngeal pain, headaches … Patients with AIDS are various pains. But whether acute or chronic pain is not inevitable. Many treatments (medicated or not) exist. It is therefore essential to establish a dialogue between the patient and the healthcare team. Indeed, only an accurate description of the patient experience will enable physicians to diagnose and develop a personalized treatment.

Pain and cancer
If at the beginning, the cancer is often silent disease, pain usually occur during the course of the disease. The primary cause of this pain is the tumor itself. Indeed, it sometimes irritates and alters its devices and as well as those of neighboring organs nerves. This nerve damage is then responsible for cancer pain. In addition, pain is sometimes secondary consequence of cancer treatment itself.

sensations The face of pain differ from one patient to another. This is why it is important not to minimize or silent suffering. Doctors know their mechanisms and are able to develop a suitable treatment for each, depending on the locality, the type and intensity of pain.

In the case of cancer or AIDS, physical and psychological pain affect the quality of life of the patient. However, there are many treatments tailored to each situation. That the disease has the least possible impact on the social life of the patient, it is essential to take care of the pain everyday. Only a dialogue with the medical team will implement solutions to improve the patient’s life.

Zona: when worries lurk

Generally very painful, herpes zoster is an acute dermatosis of viral origin. Opportunity to see how a small officer infection of four letters, benign in appearance, may our skin a real hell.

Most of us carry the herpes zoster virus. Origin: chicken pox! EH Yes, primary infection, this first contact, occurs during early childhood: varicella-zoster viruses do one.

worries lurk

Dr. Jekyll in childhood, Mister Hyde in adults
When chickenpox, the virus penetrates and multiplies in the airway and past in the blood then reaches the skin, its main target. There, it induces a characteristic vesicular rash in the form of small droplets. Once the rash is gone, the virus settles in sensory nerve ganglia (spinal posterior, cranial, dorsal roots) where it will remain permanently. Continue reading “Zona: when worries lurk”

Childbirth at home

Home birth is associated, in France as in most Western countries, with the images of the past, at the time where our grandmothers, not by choice but by necessity gave birth to their children in their bedroom. In some countries however, many deliveries take place yet at home. Return on this practice to the strains of nostalgia.

Proponents of the home birth, arguing the overmedicalization surrounding the birth, tirelessly cite the only and same country doing figure exception in Europe: the Netherlands.

chosen the right maternity

The Dutch example
If 30% of the Dutch give birth at home, it is important to remember that prevention policy is much greater than in France. And it is only if the pregnancy is safe, proposed a homebirth in a more familiar setting. Continue reading “Childbirth at home”

50 years of childbirth without pain

Created initially for the Steelworkers, the maternity ward of the Bluets in Paris has become the reference for painless childbirth. But since the 1950s, the preparation at birth has deeply changed. For Dr. Evelyne Petroff and Danielle Sfoggia today the accompaniment should be customized and fostering dialogue. They respond to issues of Doctissimo.

Doctissimo: Bluets surrogacy was pioneer in childbirth without pain. What developments experienced by this method?

Dr. Petroff and Sfoggia: Childbirth without pain has been developed by Dr. Fernand Lamaze and his team, after attending a birth in the former USSR. This method is based on two pillars. The first is pedagogical: it comes to learn the mother-to-be how birth, just as it would teach him to swim. Be given particular notions of anatomy. In the 1950s, pedagogy through lectures, and metallurgical workers ‘returning on the benches of the school”. The other pillar of the program is a physical component. It was based on the work of Pavlov at the time: it was of “deconditioning” women to suffer during childbirth. This happening by associate contraction with breathing to oxygenate baby, rather than associate it with pain.

childbirth without pain

This method was very controversial. In the 1970s, M. Leboyer added the concept of softness of the baby home. Light, gestures… the Leboyer method advocates a birth without violence. Then there was the arrival of the epidural in the 1980s, heavily dosed at the time. Women felt more nothing. They were passive, while Lamaze approach was intended to make them active. Need to find a balance between pain reduction and the involvement in its delivery.

Doctissimo: Precisely, how do you manage to find this balance?
Dr. Petroff and Sfoggia: Our goal is not to control the pain at all costs but to accompany women in what they wish to: singing, breathing, epidural dosed mini… We have women who opt for a method, and then change their mind along the way. Our support for the mother-to-be is refined. We are not aiming a kind “of ideal childbirth”, but what is best for each. But we keep the two pillars of the Lamaze, teaching method and physical approach. We give ourselves the means to propose more human accompaniments, favouring dialogue and Exchange. Thus, the educational part is done by classes diversified, with not more than 10 persons, from the 4e month of pregnancy. Because every woman is unique, and each baby is unique.

Doctissimo: But how do you manage to propose a personalised welcome, while most maternity wards are experiencing a real crisis?

Dr. Petroff and Sfoggia: First, it is true that we do not problem pregnancies. This allows us to concentrate on coaching. In addition, we work in network. Many doctors general practitioners and gynaecologists are related to our maternity to extend the monitoring. We regularly offer training.

Doctissimo: What is the profile of women who give birth at you and what methods of painless childbirth are preferred?
Dr. Petroff and Sfoggia: We give birth to 1,750 babies each year. But we do not have detailed data on the most methods. Because as I told you, many women change along the way. But in General, 70 to 80% of women are opting for a preparation for childbirth. Those who do not follow have often already practiced a technique they know. Or there may be other cultures, which will have specific approaches. With regard to the profile of expectant mothers, we welcome women of all backgrounds, of all socio-professional categories.

Doctissimo: Within your maternity, the father there a privileged position?
Dr. Petroff and Sfoggia: The father was always present during childbirth. But it is true that in the mid-1970s, there was a very militant movement so he attended the birth, cut the cord… Today, there is a return to more reason. Father occurs depending on what it is willing to do, there is no obligation. But there is a genuine work of the team, to make fathers feel welcomed as part of the adventure. They are welcome everywhere: in consultation, ultrasound, in preparation (“words of men” interview them is devoted), childbirth (even during caesarean sections) and in puerperium throughout the day.

Doctissimo: Under your auspices, a birth House will soon see the light of day?
Dr. Petroff and Sfoggia: This House of birth is expected in 2006. Attention, it is not an extension of motherhood the Bluets, but an autonomous structure, which will occur the liberal midwives. It will be attached to our maternity. The goal is to offer women a yet more custom tracking, and delivery “at home”. Because it is now almost impossible to give birth at home.

Who will give birth me?

It is with a tinted relief to apprehension that you see closer to the date of the birth. After having made acquaintance with doctors, midwives and even the anaesthetist, finally it is the encounter with your child. But in fact, who will be present the day?

Everything depends on the type of institution you have chosen, hospital or private clinic, and the nature of your pregnancy. Maternity wards are classified by levels. Pregnancies without complications are oriented towards a level 1. Then there are 2 levels that include a neonatal unit to which address example twin pregnancies. Finally, level 3 have a Neonatal ICU. Anyway, from 1,500 births a year, regulation requires 24 hours of a full medical team (pediatrician, gynecologist-obstetrician, anaesthetist, midwives, etc).

Who will give birth me

In the structures of first, or even second-level operation of the team differs. The midwife and obstetrician doctor are custody, i.e. present on the spot, while anaesthetist or pediatrician doctors are on call, in other words physically absent, but can be “Mexican”. Finally in the private structures, you’ll case the midwife, physician accoucheur not moving during the last phase of the work, for the release of the baby. Continue reading “Who will give birth me?”

Diabetes, know the symptoms and risk factors

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by an excess of sugar in the blood. In France, more than three million people are supported for this disease, or 4.6% of the population. While their number is constantly increasing (+ 5.4% per year between 2000 and 2011), a diabetic on six would not be diagnosed.

The most common diabetes is type 2 diabetes which affects 90% of diabetics and usually occurs in overweight more than 50 years. Conversely, the type 1 diabetes appears rather in children, in whom it causes weight loss. Pr Jean-Fran├žois Gautier, endocrinologist-diabetologist, precise symptoms and risk factors related to each of these two types.

Risk Factors Diabetes

Type 1 or type 2, diabetes is an excess of sugar in the blood
Diabetes is related to insufficient or improper use ofinsulin, a hormone that helps glucose (sugar) to enter the cells. That it remains so in the blood in excessive amounts, it is hyperglycemia. In France, more than three million people are treated for diabetes. Continue reading “Diabetes, know the symptoms and risk factors”

Keratitis, ulcer, abscess of cornea

The cornea, this fine transparent membrane covering the pupil and iris, is fragile. His injuries, whether they are superficial (keratitis) or more deep (ulcers), pose an infectious risk (corneal abscess) or poor healing, engaging Visual prognosis.

Related to the projection of liquid or solid particles in the eye, favored by dry eye and contact lenses, the keratitis, ulcers and corneal abscess are extremely common and can occur at any age. The Pr Christophe Baudouin *, ophthalmologist, returns on the warning signs and taking care of these pathologies.

abscess of cornea

A red and painful eye sign the ulcer of the cornea
Corneal ulcer, also called ulcerative keratitis, is an infringement of the surface of the eye, at the level of the essential vision transparent layers. It is an intermediate injury between the relatively superficial keratitis and corneal perforation. If there is infection, one speaks of abscess of cornea. Continue reading “Keratitis, ulcer, abscess of cornea”