The aortic aneurysm

What is it?
It is localized aortic dilation.

The aneurysm may sit on one of the five segments of the aorta:
-The thoracic aorta: bottom-up part, horizontal portion, top-down portion;
-The sus-renal abdominal aorta (above the start of the renal arteries);
Abdominal aortic aneurysm sous-renale (at the bottom of the departure of the renal arteries).
-Men are much more affected than women.
-Abdominal aortic aneurysm button 6 to 7% of the general population.

aortic aneurysm

Causes and risk factors
Atherosclerosis is the main cause. Syphilis often causes of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. Other causes (thoracic trauma, infective endocarditis, sepsis, elastic fabric, polyarteritis nodosa… disease) are more rare.
Spontaneous evolution is dominated by the risk of rupture often heralded by the appearance of painful signs in the territory of the aneurysm. If broken, death is immediate.The probability of failure is greater for large aneurysms (more than 6 cm in diameter). Continue reading “The aortic aneurysm”

Prevent incontinence during pregnancy

Pregnancy is sometimes accompanied by minor ailments that we would be okay. While most of them immediately cease delivery past, others may persist see worsen. This is particularly the case of incontinence.

Still largely taboo, incontinence is a condition that affects so many women. They are 3 million to be concerned. Pregnancy is a major risk factor and a resurgence of the phenomena observed during this period. Nearly a third of women are affected by urinary incontinence during pregnancy. 10% to 20% immediately after birth and 10% of these women keep urinary weakness.

pregnant woman, beauty, mirror

A time more conducive to incontinence
If the risk of urinary incontinence after childbirth are known by the vast majority of women (76% of women are aware of this risk *), only 6 out of 10 women know that pregnancy itself is a sensitive period. And yet 41% of women experience leakage, however slight, over the nine months. Pregnancy is a delicate time. Weight gain, but also increase the uterus contribute both to promote the development of urinary incontinence. During childbirth, the levator ani muscles will be subject to a considerable stretch, resulting in lesions of varying importance. In addition, stretching the muscles of the perineum, which is performed at the time of delivery, the sounds of innervation. To muscle trauma can therefore add a nerve trauma. This then promotes the appearance of urinary leakage. Continue reading “Prevent incontinence during pregnancy”

Diabetes, know the symptoms and risk factors

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by an excess of sugar in the blood. In France, more than three million people are supported for this disease, or 4.6% of the population. While their number is constantly increasing (+ 5.4% per year between 2000 and 2011), a diabetic on six would not be diagnosed.

The most common diabetes is type 2 diabetes which affects 90% of diabetics and usually occurs in overweight more than 50 years. Conversely, the type 1 diabetes appears rather in children, in whom it causes weight loss. Pr Jean-Fran├žois Gautier, endocrinologist-diabetologist, precise symptoms and risk factors related to each of these two types.

Risk Factors Diabetes

Type 1 or type 2, diabetes is an excess of sugar in the blood
Diabetes is related to insufficient or improper use ofinsulin, a hormone that helps glucose (sugar) to enter the cells. That it remains so in the blood in excessive amounts, it is hyperglycemia. In France, more than three million people are treated for diabetes. Continue reading “Diabetes, know the symptoms and risk factors”

Keratitis, ulcer, abscess of cornea

The cornea, this fine transparent membrane covering the pupil and iris, is fragile. His injuries, whether they are superficial (keratitis) or more deep (ulcers), pose an infectious risk (corneal abscess) or poor healing, engaging Visual prognosis.

Related to the projection of liquid or solid particles in the eye, favored by dry eye and contact lenses, the keratitis, ulcers and corneal abscess are extremely common and can occur at any age. The Pr Christophe Baudouin *, ophthalmologist, returns on the warning signs and taking care of these pathologies.

abscess of cornea

A red and painful eye sign the ulcer of the cornea
Corneal ulcer, also called ulcerative keratitis, is an infringement of the surface of the eye, at the level of the essential vision transparent layers. It is an intermediate injury between the relatively superficial keratitis and corneal perforation. If there is infection, one speaks of abscess of cornea. Continue reading “Keratitis, ulcer, abscess of cornea”

Foreign body in the eye

There are a thousand and one reasons to receive a foreign body in the eye, not because there is wind and you misplaced! But if one comes in general easily tipped a dust or a grain of sand in the eyes, it is everything else with some foreign body well registered in the cornea (for example metal chips) and objects more large – as a cork of champagne – that may be responsible for a trauma involving the Visual prognosis. Back on the symptoms, treatment and the best means of prevention.

What is a foreign body in the eye?
The cornea, the transparent membrane of the eye, is very sensitive. It is cleaned continuously through lacrimal secretions (tears) and the eyelids that wink several times per minute (unknowingly). But when these manoeuvres are not enough to dislodge an undesirable, strong discomfort is felt, which quickly made to the alert. The worst would you rub the eye: often, it is ineffective and sometimes – particularly when the foreign body is plugged into the cornea – it is even dangerous…

Foreign body in the eye

Multiple particles (dust, debris, pollen, insects, etc.) are carried by the wind and sometimes land in the eye. Gardening activities (grinding, cutting, etc.) and DIY also expose the eyes dust from wood, metal, etc. Still, foreign body is projected in the eye of so violently that it creates a trauma: is the case of the champagne corks (a classic during year-end festivities), balls, footballs… Continue reading “Foreign body in the eye”

Pool, beach, and monitoring

Drowning is the leading cause of death by domestic accident in children aged two to 14 years. In older children, these drownings occur mainly accidents of recreation (drownings in sea and river).

In adults, failure to comply with the basic rules of safety is the primary cause of water accidents and drownings. Drownings occur both in the pool and the sea.

Pool, beach, and monitoring

Attention to children
Only the permanent monitoring of the adult is effective. This surveillance is all the more important that the child is young. A few seconds of inattention can quickly turn to drama.
The tiny, prevention action is limited to remove the risks:
Private pool must be equipped with a security anti-drowning system;
It will never leave the child alone, even where there he foot, on the beach or at the swimming pool;It will be installed buoys and floating devices.

For the child to understand:
It is essential to explain the risk so that the child apprehends it the better;
Swimming learning must be as early as possible and even if the child is afraid of the water it is important to help him overcome this fear.
Until the child knows swim, it should be buoys, or even the buoys swimwear, and permanently when it is on the edge of the water.

The great are not exempt from caution!
Elementary safety rules compliance is at the base of the water accident prevention, it can be summarized in a few points:
Take account of the indications of security services;
Never swim alone;
Gradually enter into water especially when it is very hot or that the water is cold.
Do not bathe in too-hearty meals and/or significant alcohol absorption.
Private pools…

Regulations imposed since January 1, 2004, of the safety devices (barriers, shutters blinds.) around the newly built swimming pools. Since January 1, 2006, all pools must now be equipped with safety devices. The owners have the choice between several facilities:

A barrier (standard NF P90-306) flexible or rigid to a height of at least 1.10 m between two points of support, equipped with a gate, preferably automatic closing. An audible alarm of swimming pool (standard NF P90-307) placed on the surface of the water or around the pool.

Coverage (standard NF P90-308) flexible or rigid closing basin: automatic shutter, barcodes, cover stretched outside the coping, pool bottom back. A fully and properly closed pool (standard NF P90-309) shelter.

Attention to the evil of the mountains!

Dreaming of these holidays in the mountains of this trek in the Atlas or the Nepal… And yet, barely arrived at altitude, you are suddenly caught by headaches, nausea, you feel tired. Attention! Learn to recognize the evil acute mountain (MAM). How to prevent this problem? What are the treatments? The evil of the mountains should not be taken lightly.

We all hikers, skiers, and addicted of the summits, who one day were victims of the evil of the mountains. We must remember that this problem can occur in all who pass a stay aloft. The main cause: the lack of oxygen.

Attention to the evil of the mountains!

The malaise in the coma
Mountain sickness occurs a few hours after the arrival in altitude. The symptoms are often limited to headaches, nausea, vomiting, ringing in the ears, palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. The night insomnia may occur. But beware, it can be much more serious. At a high altitude (4 000-5 000 metres), pulmonary edema may occur suddenly (coughing, shortness of breath, or even coma). From this altitude and more frequently still at a higher altitude (5 000-5 500 meters), high-altitude cerebral edema (OCHA) can occur. Manifested initially by disorders of mood and behavior, headache, disorders of sight or vomiting, may immerse the patient into a coma and even death. These signs should not be taken lightly. Continue reading “Attention to the evil of the mountains!”

The beach is not the foot!

It has dreamed of long months and we finally, lying on the sand, toes in range… But leaving your towel, don’t forget to watch where you put your feet! Sea urchins, shells, sharp, syringes, bits of glass, burns… took no vacation. Countless enemies lie in wait. Attention!

The wounds of the foot are very frequent in the summer. They are derived from marine animals such as sea urchins, shells, the bright but also external elements to the aquatic world as syringes and the ends of glass left there or brought back by the tide.

The beach is not the foot!

These small injuries often have the appearance of the innocuous because they are, initially, only a small cut. However, the repeated baths, sea water and walking barefoot do not facilitate healing, and it is often prudent to get the feet dry until healing. Continue reading “The beach is not the foot!”

Why men don’t listen to half?

It might be a scientific justification for the scant attention which men are capable. Researchers at Indiana University (United States) found the explanation to this ancestral problem: men seek only half of their brains when they listen while women use the two cerebral hemispheres.This is a study that could well feed conversations and revive a war of the sexes.

Rather than a lobe or an ear…
Equipped with headphones, twenty men and twenty women took attention to the reading of a passage from a novel by John Grisham. During this period, and under the eye a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scanner happening their brains examined, the majority of the men showed brain activity of one temporal lobe of the left hemisphere, generally associated with the functions of listening and language. Conversely, the brain of the majority of the women testified to an activity in the temporal lobe of the two hemispheres, both the left than the right, commonly used for musical activities and the situation in the area.

Why men don't listen to half

The areas of brain activity in red highlight that men use a lobe to listen to two women.
The study presented at the annual meeting of the society of Radiology in North America in Chicago does not, however, if men have a capacity of less than women listen. “Our research suggests that the way to listen differs between the sexes, but this does not necessarily imply that the capacity and performance go hand in hand,” says Professor Joseph Lurito, responsible for the study. Continue reading “Why men don’t listen to half?”

Learn the gestures of emergency at school

Outside the hospital, cardiac arrest survival rate is less than 5% and the number of deaths it causes is every year in thousands. Yet, many lives could be saved if the first gestures of relief involved pending the arrival of professionals. But it is estimated that less than 7% of the French know these gestures which save. To remedy this, the Government proposes their learning at school.

A poll conducted in September 2000 by the SOFRES survey at the request of the French Red Cross has shown that 93% of the French believe that it is important to train in first aid. Yet less than 7 percent of the French are introduced to the emergency.

gestures of emergency

The importance of the first rescuer
The scientific work are categorical, the first rescuer plays a key role in the “chain of survival”. Thus, in August 2001, the Red Cross launched a massive awareness campaign first aid training. The Red Cross experts believe as well that “If the rescue of the first moment is quickly relayed by specialised relief, among others equipped with semi-automatic defibrillation devices, the chances of survival for a victim of cardiac arrest are increased by 20 %”. Continue reading “Learn the gestures of emergency at school”